Tumours growing on the ovary tend to be cystic, i.e., they have an external membrane and are full of fluid. Malignant cysts require the removal of the whole ovary and most times the uterus and the other ovary. Benign cysts on the other hand, can be removed by themselves thus preserving the ovary.
This is the most desired option in women who have not reached menopause. Preserving the ovary is important not only for being able to fall pregnant, but also for the production of ovarian hormones oestrogen and progesterone.
Removal of ovarian cysts, or more technically ovarian cystectomy, is almost always done via laparoscopy (keyhole surgery).
The camera and instruments are introduced through small, 5 mm incisions.
An incision is made on the ovary, the cyst is dissected and separated from the normal ovarian tissue and removed. The remaining ovary is sutured if required. After healing, the ovary goes back to its normal size and aspect.
The cyst is then removed from the inside the abdomen and sent for histopathology examination.